Herdenken of verwachten? Ik ben opgegroeid met het beeld dat de discipelen maar weinig begrepen van de hemelvaart van de Heere Jezus. Zij stonden Hem maar na te kijken, stelden nog steeds domme vragen, en werden terecht gewezen door de engelen. Maar, klopt dat beeld eigenlijk wel?
Zeker, de discipelen konden maar moeilijk geloven dat Jezus was opgestaan. Het kostte Jezus behoorlijk veel moeite om hen daarvan te overtuigen (Hand 1:3). Stap voor stap laat Hij vertelt hij hen wat er straks, na Zijn vertrek, van hen verwacht wordt, namelijk op pad gaan en het Goede Nieuws verkondigen, onderwijs te geven, gevolg d door tekenen en wonderen. “Wie geloofd zal hebben en gedoopt zal zijn, zal zalig worden.” (Mark 16:16 [show]Mark 16:16
Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned. (ESV)
). Heel de wereld is hun zendingsterrein. En, voegt Hij er nadrukkelijk aan toe: “En zie, Ik ben met u al de dagen, tot de voleinding van de wereld.” (Matt 28:20 [show]Matthew 28:20 teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age." (ESV)
). Vlak voor Zijn sterven, had Hij hen verteld hoe dat einde er uit zou zien (Matt 23-25 [show]Matthew 23-25 Seven Woes to the Scribes and Pharisees [23:1]Then Jesus said to the crowds and to his disciples, "The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses' seat, so practice and observe whatever they tell you--but not what they do. For they preach, but do not practice. They tie up heavy burdens, hard to bear,(1) and lay them on people's shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to move them with their finger. They do all their deeds to be seen by others. For they make their phylacteries broad and their fringes long, and they love the place of honor at feasts and the best seats in the synagogues and greetings in the marketplaces and being called rabbi(2) by others. But you are not to be called rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all brothers.(3) And call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven. Neither be called instructors, for you have one instructor, the Christ. The greatest among you shall be your servant. Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut the kingdom of heaven in people's faces. For you neither enter yourselves nor allow those who would enter to go in.(4) Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell(5) as yourselves. "Woe to you, blind guides, who say, 'If anyone swears by the temple, it is nothing, but if anyone swears by the gold of the temple, he is bound by his oath.' You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that has made the gold sacred? And you say, 'If anyone swears by the altar, it is nothing, but if anyone swears by the gift that is on the altar, he is bound by his oath.' You blind men! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that makes the gift sacred? So whoever swears by the altar swears by it and by everything on it. And whoever swears by the temple swears by it and by him who dwells in it. And whoever swears by heaven swears by the throne of God and by him who sits upon it. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint and dill and cumin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness. These you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. You blind guides, straining out a gnat and swallowing a camel! "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. You blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and the plate, that the outside also may be clean. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but within are full of dead people's bones and all uncleanness. So you also outwardly appear righteous to others, but within you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets and decorate the monuments of the righteous, saying, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have taken part with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.' Thus you witness against yourselves that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell? Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify, and some you will flog in your synagogues and persecute from town to town, so that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of innocent Abel to the blood of Zechariah the son of Barachiah,(6) whom you murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. Truly, I say to you, all these things will come upon this generation. Lament over Jerusalem "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! See, your house is left to you desolate. For I tell you, you will not see me again, until you say, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.'" Jesus Foretells Destruction of the Temple [24:1]Jesus left the temple and was going away, when his disciples came to point out to him the buildings of the temple. But he answered them, "You see all these, do you not? Truly, I say to you, there will not be left here one stone upon another that will not be thrown down." Signs of the Close of the Age As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, "Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the close of the age?" And Jesus answered them, "See that no one leads you astray. For many will come in my name, saying, 'I am the Christ,' and they will lead many astray. And you will hear of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not alarmed, for this must take place, but the end is not yet. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there will be famines and earthquakes in various places. All these are but the beginning of the birth pains. "Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and put you to death, and you will be hated by all nations for my name's sake. And then many will fall away(7) and betray one another and hate one another. And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray. And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come. The Abomination of Desolation "So when you see the abomination of desolation spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. Let the one who is on the housetop not go down to take what is in his house, and let the one who is in the field not turn back to take his cloak. And alas for women who are pregnant and for those who are nursing infants in those days! Pray that your flight may not be in winter or on a Sabbath. For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be. And if those days had not been cut short, no human being would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short. Then if anyone says to you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or 'There he is!' do not believe it. For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect. See, I have told you beforehand. So, if they say to you, 'Look, he is in the wilderness,' do not go out. If they say, 'Look, he is in the inner rooms,' do not believe it. For as the lightning comes from the east and shines as far as the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures will gather. The Coming of the Son of Man "Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. The Lesson of the Fig Tree "From the fig tree learn its lesson: as soon as its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near. So also, when you see all these things, you know that he is near, at the very gates. Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place. Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away. No One Knows That Day and Hour "But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son,(8) but the Father only. For as were the days of Noah, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark, and they were unaware until the flood came and swept them all away, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. Then two men will be in the field; one will be taken and one left. Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one left. Therefore, stay awake, for you do not know on what day your Lord is coming. But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what part of the night the thief was coming, he would have stayed awake and would not have let his house be broken into. Therefore you also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect. "Who then is the faithful and wise servant,(9) whom his master has set over his household, to give them their food at the proper time? Blessed is that servant whom his master will find so doing when he comes. Truly, I say to you, he will set him over all his possessions. But if that wicked servant says to himself, 'My master is delayed,' and begins to beat his fellow servants(10) and eats and drinks with drunkards, the master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not know and will cut him in pieces and put him with the hypocrites. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. The Parable of the Ten Virgins [25:1]"Then the kingdom of heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps(11) and went to meet the bridegroom.(12) Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. For when the foolish took their lamps, they took no oil with them, but the wise took flasks of oil with their lamps. As the bridegroom was delayed, they all became drowsy and slept. But at midnight there was a cry, 'Here is the bridegroom! Come out to meet him.' Then all those virgins rose and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' But the wise answered, saying, 'Since there will not be enough for us and for you, go rather to the dealers and buy for yourselves.' And while they were going to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. Afterward the other virgins came also, saying, 'Lord, lord, open to us.' But he answered, 'Truly, I say to you, I do not know you.' Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour. The Parable of the Talents "For it will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants(13) and entrusted to them his property. To one he gave five talents,(14) to another two, to another one, to each according to his ability. Then he went away. He who had received the five talents went at once and traded with them, and he made five talents more. So also he who had the two talents made two talents more. But he who had received the one talent went and dug in the ground and hid his master's money. Now after a long time the master of those servants came and settled accounts with them. And he who had received the five talents came forward, bringing five talents more, saying, 'Master, you delivered to me five talents; here I have made five talents more.' His master said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful servant.(15) You have been faithful over a little; I will set you over much. Enter into the joy of your master.' And he also who had the two talents came forward, saying, 'Master, you delivered to me two talents; here I have made two talents more.' His master said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a little; I will set you over much. Enter into the joy of your master.' He also who had received the one talent came forward, saying, 'Master, I knew you to be a hard man, reaping where you did not sow, and gathering where you scattered no seed, so I was afraid, and I went and hid your talent in the ground. Here you have what is yours.' But his master answered him, 'You wicked and slothful servant! You knew that I reap where I have not sown and gather where I scattered no seed? Then you ought to have invested my money with the bankers, and at my coming I should have received what was my own with interest. So take the talent from him and give it to him who has the ten talents. For to everyone who has will more be given, and he will have an abundance. But from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away. And cast the worthless servant into the outer darkness. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.' The Final Judgment "When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne. Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. And he will place the sheep on his right, but the goats on the left. Then the King will say to those on his right, 'Come, you who are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you clothed me, I was sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me.' Then the righteous will answer him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you drink? And when did we see you a stranger and welcome you, or naked and clothe you? And when did we see you sick or in prison and visit you?' And the King will answer them, 'Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers,(16) you did it to me.' "Then he will say to those on his left, 'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me no drink, I was a stranger and you did not welcome me, naked and you did not clothe me, sick and in prison and you did not visit me.' Then they also will answer, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not minister to you?' Then he will answer them, saying, 'Truly, I say to you, as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.' And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life." (ESV) Footnotes 1. [23:4] Some manuscripts omit 'hard to bear' 2. [23:7] 'Rabbi' means 'my teacher', or 'my master'; also verse 8 3. [23:8] Or 'brothers and sisters' 4. [23:13] Some manuscripts add here (or after verse 12) verse 14: 'Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses and for a pretense you make long prayers; therefore you will receive the greater condemnation' 5. [23:15] Greek 'Gehenna'; also verse 33 6. [23:35] Some manuscripts omit 'the son of Barachiah' 7. [24:10] Or 'stumble' 8. [24:36] Some manuscripts omit 'nor the Son' 9. [24:45] Greek 'bondservant'; also verses 46, 48, 50 10. [24:49] Greek 'bondservants' 11. [25:1] Or 'torches' 12. [25:1] Some manuscripts add 'and the bride' 13. [25:14] Greek 'bondservants'; also verse 19 14. [25:15] A 'talent' was a monetary unit worth about twenty years' wages for a laborer 15. [25:21] Greek 'bondservant'; also verses 23, 26, 30 16. [25:40] Or 'brothers and sisters'
), en na Zijn opstanding sprak Hij met hen over “de dingen die het Koninkrijk van God betreffen.” (Hand 1:3). Logisch dat zijn discipelen dan vragen of Hij ‘in deze tijd voor Israël het Koninkrijk weer oprichten?” (Hand. 1:6). Een Koninkrijk waar Jezus Koning is, is pas echt een Vrederijk; Hij is de Vredevorst (Jes. 9:5). Jezus bestraft hen niet over de gedachte aan een aards Koninkrijk, maar wijst hen op de tijd. Met andere woorden, het Koninkrijk komt, maar wanneer, dat is verborgen.
Dan is het zover. “De Heere dan is, nadat Hij tot hen gesproken had, opgenomen in de hemel en heeft Zich gezet aan de rechterhand van God.” (Mark 16:19 [show]Mark 16:19
So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God. (ESV)
) Jezus neemt Zijn rechtmatige plaats in! Lukas beschrijft dat Jezus zijn discipelen zegent en al zegenend opgenomen wordt (Luk 24:50-51 [show]Luke 24:50-51 The Ascension Then he led them out as far as Bethany, and lifting up his hands he blessed them. While he blessed them, he parted from them and was carried up into heaven. (ESV)
). Zij kijken Hem na, ook nadat zij Hem niet meer kunnen zien. Natuurlijk, wie zou dat niet doen als je echt afscheid neemt van de Meester? Ook al is Hij voor je ogen weggenomen, je zou blijven staren. Dat lijkt me geen bewijs dat ze er weinig van begrepen. Juist niet. Ze beseften: Hij is echt als Mens van deze aarde weggegaan, en ook hún burgerschap is nu in de hemelen, waaruit wij ook de Zaligmaker verwachten (Fil 3:20). Een kort woord van de engelen brengt hen weer op aarde. Hij komt terug, zoals Hij gegaan is (Hand 1:11). Geen vermaning, maar verwachting! Geen wonder dat zij in aanbidding stonden: “Zij aanbaden Hem en keerden terug naar Jeruzalem met grote blijdschap.” Luk 24:52 [show]Luke 24:52 And they worshiped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy, (ESV)
. Hemelvaart is niet alleen herdenken, maar vooral verwachten. Toekomstverwachting!
De hemelvaart van Jezus was niet nodig voor ons, maar voor Hem. Hij nam Zijn plaats in. Hij bracht de Mens bij God, nadat God bij de mensen kwam. Hij ging niet weg, om daarmee te zeggen: nu kunnen jullie het zelf wel, want ‘Ik ben met jullie tot de voleinding van de wereld’.
“Maar zij gingen overal heen om te prediken…” (Mark 16:20 [show]Mark 16:20
And they went out and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the message by accompanying signs.]] (ESV)
); Dat is het logische gevolg, én gehoorzaamheid. Hoe eerder alle mensen met het Evangelie bereikt worden, hoe eerder hun Meester terug komt. Overal prediken: dat is alleen mogelijk omdat Jezus op Zijn plaats zit. En door Zijn Geest is Hij overal, dankzij Pinksteren.
Nee, zijn discipelen begrepen de hemelvaart van hun Meester heel goed. En ik nu ook beter. Jij?